Understanding Canine Brucella: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Canine brucellosis is a bacterial infection caused by Brucella canis, primarily affecting dogs. It's crucial for pet owners and veterinarians to recognize the symptoms, diagnose the infection accurately, and initiate appropriate treatment promptly.

Female Canine


  • Canine brucellosis can manifest in various ways, including reproductive issues like infertility, abortions, and stillbirths in female dogs.
  • Male dogs may experience swollen testicles or exhibit signs of prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland).
  • Both genders can develop swollen lymph nodes, lethargy, fever, and weight loss.
  • Occasionally, dogs may not display any visible symptoms, making diagnosis challenging.


  • Veterinarians typically diagnose canine brucellosis through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and medical history.
  • Blood tests, such as the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) and the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), help detect antibodies produced by the dog's immune system against Brucella bacteria.
  • Additionally, bacterial culture from tissues like blood, semen, or vaginal swabs may be necessary for confirmation.

A Swift Diagnostic Tool for Detecting Canine Brucellosis 

Detecting Canine Brucella typically involves a combination of clinical observation, patient history, and laboratory analysis. One crucial diagnostic tool in this process is the Canine Brucellosis Rapid Test. This test rapidly identifies antibodies generated by the dog's immune system against Brucella bacteria. Its quick turnaround time enables veterinarians to swiftly confirm the infection's presence, facilitating prompt treatment initiation. Alongside traditional methods like bacterial culture, the Rapid Canine Brucella Ab Test plays a pivotal role in early detection, aiding in effective disease management within dog populations.


  • Treatment of canine brucellosis is complex and often involves a combination of antibiotics.
  • Antibiotics like doxycycline and fluoroquinolones are commonly used, but treatment can be prolonged, lasting several weeks to months.
  • Caution must be exercised as the infection can be challenging to eradicate completely.
  • In cases of breeding dogs, spaying or neutering is often recommended to prevent the spread of the disease.

Polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 in aluminium hydroxide induces serum bactericidal and opsonic antibodies against Brucella canis in dogs


  • Prevention is key in managing canine brucellosis, especially in kennels, breeding facilities, and multi-dog households.
  • Practicing good hygiene, including regular handwashing, cleaning of living spaces, and proper disposal of aborted materials, can help reduce the risk of transmission.
  • Testing breeding dogs for brucellosis before mating and quarantining newly acquired dogs before introducing them to the existing population are essential preventive measures.

Public Health Concerns:

  • While canine brucellosis primarily affects dogs, it can pose a risk to humans, particularly those in close contact with infected animals.
  • Transmission to humans usually occurs through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or tissues, leading to flu-like symptoms.
  • Proper hygiene practices, such as wearing gloves when handling potentially infected materials and promptly disinfecting contaminated surfaces, can minimize the risk of transmission to humans.

In conclusion, canine brucellosis is a significant concern for dog owners and breeders alike due to its potential impact on canine health and reproductive efficiency. Early recognition of symptoms, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate treatment are essential for managing the disease effectively and minimizing its spread within canine populations. Additionally, practicing good hygiene and preventive measures are crucial steps in safeguarding both canine and human health.

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